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Founder and the first president of the Turkish Republic. Atatürk was born in 1881 ... More...
He is an architect who grew up in one of the most splendid periods of the Ottoman State, and who contributed to this era with his works.
Various sources state that Sinan was the architect of around 360 structures which included 84 mosques, 51 small mosques ("mescit"), 57 schools of theology ("medrese") 7 schools for Koran reciters ("darülkurra"), 22 mausoleums ("türbe"), 17 Alm Houses ("imaret"), 3 hospitals ("darüşşifa"), 7 aquaducts and arches, 48 inns ("Caravansary"), 35 palaces and mansions, 8 vaults and 46 baths. Sinan, who held the position of chief architect of the palace, which meant being the top manager of construction works of the Ottoman Empire, for nearly 50 years, worked with a large team of assistants consisting of architects and master builders.
The development and maturing stages of Sinan can be marked with three major works. The first two of these are in İstanbul - Şehzade Mosque which he calls his apprenticeship period work, Süleymaniye Mosque which is the work of his qualification stage, and Selimiye Mosque in Edirne the product of his master stage. Şehzade Mosque is the first of the grand mosques Sinan has created. Mihriman Sultan Mosque which is also known as the Üsküdar Quay Mosque was completed in the same year and has an original design with its main dome supported by three half domes. When Sinan reached the age of 70, he had completed the Süleymaniye Mosque and the Complex. This building, situated on one of the hills of Istanbul facing the Golden horn, and built in the name of Süleyman the Magnificent, is one of the symbolic monuments of the period. The diameter of the dome which exceeds 31 meters at Selimiye Mosque which Sinan completed when he was 80, is the most significant example of the level of achievement Sinan reached in architecture. Mimar Sinan has reached his artistic summit with the design, architecture, tile decorations, land stone workmanship displayed at Selimiye.
Another area of architecture where Sinan delivered unique projects are the mausoleums. Mausoleum of Şehzade Mehmed gets attention with its exterior decorations and sliced dome. Rüstem Paşa mausoleum is a very attractive structure in classical style. The mausoleum of Süleyman the Magnificent which is one of his interesting experimentations has an octagonal body and flat dome. Selim II Mausoleum with has a square plan and is one of the best examples of Turkish mausoleum architecture. Sinan's own mausoleum which is located at the north - east part of the Süleymaniye complex on the other hand, is a very plain structure.
Sinan, in the bridges he built, has masterfully combined art with functionalism. The largest of his work in this group is the nearly 635 m. long Büyükçekmece Bridge. Other significant examples are Ailivri Bridge, Lüleburgaz (Sokollu Mehmet Pasha) Bridge on Lüleburgaz River, Sinanlı Bridge over Ergene River and Drina Bridge which has became the title of the famous novel of Yugoslav author İvo Andriç.
While Sinan was maintaining and improving the water supply system of İstanbul, he has built arched aqueducts at several locations within the city. Mağlova Arch over Alibey River, which is 257 meter long, 35 meters high and displaying two layers of arches is one of the best samples of its kind.
Great and famous folk philosopher whose memory has become a legend. His anecdotes which are verbally transmitted at everywhere where Turkish is spoken is popular among all classes and levels of people. They also were transmitted to the everyday language of countries which are neighbors of Turkey. Azarbaijan, Clans of Caucasia, Creama and Idil vicinity, Turkistan and the lands of Türkmenistan and Kyrgysistan are among them. The fame of Nasreddin Hodja is slowly spreading all over the world and his anecdotes are being translated into numerous languages.
Famous traveler, he is the first and the greatest representative of travel literature. He has visited almost all cities and towns of the Ottoman Empire and took long trips to foreign lands. His travels covered Anatolia, Rumelia, Syria, Egypt, Cerete and Hejaz, Hungary, Poland, Austria, Germany, Netherlands, Crimea and Caucasia. He tried to cover history, buildings, customs and traditions and the famous people in his writings. His travel journal are published in several volumes.
A painter who has gained world wide recognition. Fikret Mualla in general painted the cafes, the people at the cafes, the taverns, streets, circuses, places of entertainment and the life in Paris. His favorite colours were red, blue, orange and lilac. With these colours he expressed his feelings, his sadness and his joy of life. Men Sitting, Still Life in Blue, Bistro, Cafe, French Workers at a Cafe in Marseille, Golden Horn and Süleymaniye, A Street in Paris are only a few of the famous paintings of Fikret Mualla
The composer who started the classical era of Turkish music. He has composed more than a thousand songs and numerous religious pieces. He has published a siz hundred page journal of lyrics called "mecmuai Arif" in İstanbul during 1873. Today we have more than 200 of his songs composed in 22 modes, seven religious works and a composition in the "nehavent" form.
He heads the list of most cultured and most productive members of the new writer's school.
He started to be recognized with his articles in the journal called "Nevruz", which he started to publish in 1884. In 1886 he published the newspaper "Hizmet" (Service). He published his works such as "Sefile", "Nedime" and "Bir Muhtıranın Son Yaprakları" in this paper. One of his greatest works "Mavi ve Siyah" (Blue and Black) was first published in the journal Servet-i Fünun in 1894. "Aşk-ı Memnu" (forbidden love) which he published next raised Halid Ziya to the highest ranks of the Turkish Literature. Following the serialization of his biography as Forty Years ("Kırk Yıl") in the newspaper Vakit, he wrote a novel where he tells the suicide of his son Vedat.
The author, who calls himself "an eternal lover of Turkish", was one of the most productive of the group of new writers, and he was the first to apply the Western technique to the Turkish novel.
The great doctor, scholar and philosopher of the eastern world during the middle Ages. For years, his works were used as text books at western universities. He was a true pathfinder not only in medicine but also in mathematics and physics. The philosophical encyclopedia called "Şifa" (Healing), "Kanun" which is a medical encyclopedia, and books titled "Necat" and "İşarat" and the twenty volume "Kitab-ül-insaf" which comments on total works of Aristoteles are among his major works.
The renown novelist who was one of the heroes of the national independence movement, has written stories which could penetrate to the depths of human soul and which could excite the reader.
She has proven herself as an analytical novelist which could effectively bring to life exceptional female characters who are sometimes hurt when faced with the eternal power of love and passion situations which also push the stories forward, but who never bend. This is seen particularly in "Seviye Talib" published in 1909, "Raik'in Annesi" ( 1910) and "Handan" (1912). She has also proven with her novel "Son Eseri", published in 1912 that she was a master of creating characters who are equipped with an unfailing love of art, and who posses an infinite source of excitement. She started publishing the paper Yeni Turan in the same year.
Her most famous works are "Sinekli Bakkal", "Vurun Kahpeye", "Kalp Ağrısı" and "Zeyno'nun Oğlu".
A great Turkish - Islamic poet, he has also written the lyrics of our national anthem.
Akif practically screams with his poetry where he displays a striking strong voice which kindles nationalistic feelings. The poem he wrote for those who died at Gallipoli, is the greatest of the legends of heroism. Akif who gave us the most effective examples of the art of poetry, has moved to Anatolia during the National Independence War, and was one of its participants.
Despite the fact religious subjects are abundant in his poems, he cannot be considered as merely an Islamic poet. His lines, taking their theme from numerous problems faced by the society, has proven that his vision reached far beyond religion. His poems are collected in seven volumes under the title "Safahat"
of the greatest Turkish composers. He has created masterpieces in all forms and
modes of Turkish music. He has also developed the composite musical modes of
"sultan yegah", "neveser", "saba buselik",
"hicaz buselik" and "Araban kürdi". His greatest works are
the seven Mevlevi pieces for Samah. More than 200 hundred of his compositions
are available today.
Great national poet and famous Turkish Journalist. He was a poet full of feelings for his country and the nation. He had his most famous work "Vatan Yahut Silistre" staged at Gedikpaşa Theatre in 1873. He produced his best work during prison life which lasted for 32 years. Some of his works titled "Rüya", "Zavallı Çocuk", "Kerbela", "Akif Bey", "Gülnihal", "İntibah" and "Emir Nevruz" were published with pseudonyms and others anonymously.
Famous Turkish sailor and the first Turkish marine cartographer. Piri Reis was both a great sea commander who was heroic and smart in battle and one of the most important cartographers and sailor writers of his time. Starting with his days of piracy, he systematically wrote down his observations. Works he produced written by using the material he found on marine cartography and marine geography and the maps he produced have a distinguished place in history of science. The world map he charted was printed by the Turkish Historical Institution in 1935. This map was presented by Piri Reis to Yavuz Sultan Selim in Egypt in 1517.
The first great Turkish journalist, and the distinguished name of Tanzimat literature. He started to work as the editor of the newspaper "Tercüman- ı Ahval" in 1860. Şinasi who presented his progressive ideas in a western style at the first privately owned paper of Turkey, is also the first editorial writer of this country.
His play, "Şair Evlenmesi", which is considered the first significant step of the Turkish theater, was also published in this paper.
He started to publish another paper, called "Tasviri - Efkar" on June 28, 1862. With it he has given the most progressive and the best example of journalism for those times, where he touched upon every social problem. He collected his poems in a volume titled "Müntehabat-ı Eş'ar". Another volume called "Durub-ı Emsal" is the first book of proverbs published in this country, which was true to appropriate form
Great Turkish Poet. His real personality in poetry emerged when he became the literary editor of the "Servet-i Fünun" journal. Fikret, while at first writing romantic lyrical poems made a sharp turn towards social issues after 1908 and the acceptance of the Constitution. His poems called "Sis" (Fog) and "Bir lahza-, Teehhür" tell us about the repressive regime of the Abdülhamit days. "Tarih-i Kadim" on the other hand is constructed with lines which tell about religious pressures and a wish to destroy reactionary attitudes.
After the establishment of the constitutional system, he published the paper Tanin with another famous journalist Hüseyin Cahit. His poem "Sis" was published in its first issue,
He published "Haluk'un Cevabı" in 1911, which was followed by "Şermin". He also published a magazine for children called "Ümit ve Azim". Fikret who was an outspoken person instantly revolting against injustice, died on August 19, 1915. His grave is at Aşiyan. His home is now a museum and a Tevfik Fikret Association is also established. His poetry is collected in a volume titled "Rübab-ı Şikeste".