Morning, afternoon...Sabah, Öğleden sonra
What is the time?...Saat kaç?
At what time?...Saat kaçta?
travelling, in Hotel or in Restaurant...
A room.....Bir oda
Two people.....iki kişi
City centre.....Şehir merkezi
Where is it?.....Nerede?
What is the price?.....Fiyatı nedir?
Is it far?.....Uzak mı?
Hot water.....Sıcak su
Tourism bureau.....Turizm bürosu
A supplementary bed.....ilave bir yatak
Good hotel.....iyi bir otel
Light Tea.....Açık Çay
How much is it?.....Bu ne kadar?
It is very expensive.....Çok pahalı
It is cheap:
I like it: Begendim
I do not like it.....Beğenmedim
Shopping center: Carsi
Cash machine: Bankamatik
Mineral water.....Maden suyu
Fruit juice.....Meyva Suyu
Source : Richard
Chambers / Chicago University
1928, Turkish has been written in a slightly modified Latin alphabet
which is very nearly phonetic.
Turkish alphabet has 8 vowels (A E I İ O Ö U Ü ) and 21 consonants. The letters Q,W and X do not exist in
Turkish. Most letters
are pronounced pretty much as you would expect, but some are not. Once
the phonetic value of all letters is known, then it is rather easy to
pronounce any word one sees or to spell any word one hears.The following
letters require explanation:
"a" as in "card" or "dark", never as
"a" in"cat" or "back" ( kan = blood )
Cc = "J"
as in "judge" ( can= life, soul, pronounced like
Çç = "ch"
as in "church"( çay= tea, pronounced "chay", rhymes
with "buy" )
Ee = "e"
as in "bed" ( ekmek =bread )
Gg = "g"
as in "get" ( gelin =bride )
Ğ ( yumuşak
ge [soft g] Never appears as the first letter in a word; essentially
silent; sometimes lengthens preceding vowel; sometimes pronounced like
"y" in "yet"
(dağ =mountain, pronounced daa , rhymes with the "baa" of
"baa baa black sheep";
diğer =other, pronounced diyer )
undotted "i" ) "u" as in "radium" or
"i" as in "cousin" (ışık =ligth, ırmak = river )
"i" ) ="i" as in "sit" ( bir = one,
pronounced like "beer" )
Jj = "j"
as in "azure" (garaj = garage, pronounced as in French &
Oo = "o"
as in "fold"(okul =school )
Öö German "ö"
as in "König" or French "eu" as in "peur"(
göl = lake, rhymes with furl)
as in "sing", never pronounced like a "z" as the
"s" in "his"(ses = voice)
in "ship" (şey = thing, pronounced "shey" ,
rhymes with "hay")
as in "boot" (buz = ice, pronounced like "booze")
Üü German "ü"
as in "für" or French "u" as in "tu" (gül
as in "zoo" (beyaz = white)
Turkish belongs to
the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family. The earliest Turkic
inscriptions date from the 7th century C.E. and Islamic texts written in
Turkic appear in the 11th century. Turkish, the language of modern
Turkey, is spoken by about 60 million people. Other important Turkic
languages are Azeri (15 million speakers) and Uzbek (14 million speakers).
Turkish formerly used the same alphabet as Arabic, but has been written
in the Latin alphabet since 1928 as mentioned above; since 1940, Azeri
and Uzbek have been written in Cyrillic but efforts are now under way to
replace it with Latin.
As an Altaic language, Turkish has virtually nothing in common with English or other
Indo-European languages except for some loan words, usually from French
Turkish grammar is complex, but also quite
regular. Its two most characteristic features
are : (1) vowel harmony (vowels within a word follow certain harmonic
patterns) and (2) agglutination (addition suffixes to words.) Through
this process, astoundingly long word phrases can be encountered. For
example, the following means, "Maybe you are one of those whom we
were not able to Turkify."
interesting feature is that there is no gender in Turkish. The same word
, "o", for example, means "he", "she" and
call each other by their given names. For example, a man whose name is
Ahmet Kuran would be called Ahmet bey ( bey = Mr.), and his wife whose
name is Ayse Kuran would be called Ayşe hanım ( hanim =Ms.). Good friends drop the "bey" and "hanım".
But a letter would be addressed to Bay ve Bayan Ahmet Kuran (Mr. and Mrs...).
University of Arizona